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Dating houses external evidence

Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Luke and Timothy escaped, probably because they did not look like Jews (Timothy's father was a gentile). Luke accompanied him from Philippi to Troas, and with him made the long coasting voyage described in Acts 20. Mark; and in the Acts he knows all the details of St. Mark's mother, and the name of the girl who ran to the outer door when St. Plummer argues that these sections are by the same author as the rest of the Acts: The change of person seems natural and true to the narrative, but there is no change of language.Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only .99... When Paul departed from Philippi, Luke was left behind, in all probability to carry on the work of Evangelist. Luke is "the brother, whose praise is in the gospel through all the churches" (2 Corinthians ), and that he was one of the bearers of the letter to Corinth. He went up to Jerusalem, was present at the uproar, saw the attack on the Apostle, and heard him speaking "in the Hebrew tongue" from the steps outside the fortress Antonia to the silenced crowd. The characteristic expressions of the writer run through the whole book, and are as frequent in the "we" as in the other sections. Harnack (Luke the Physician, 40) makes an exhaustive examination of every word and phrase in the first of the "we" sections (xvi, 10-17), and shows how frequent they are in the rest of the Acts and the Gospel, when compared with the other Gospels. Luke (Gospels and Acts), and that in all parts of the work." When he comes to the end of his study of this section he is able to write: "After this demonstration those who declare that this passage was derived from a source, and so was not composed by the author of the whole work, take up a most difficult position. In regard to vocabulary, syntax, and style, he must have transformed everything else into his own language. He travailed a good deal, and sends greetings to the Colossians, which seems to indicate that he had visited them. Luke first appears in the Acts at Troas (16:8 sqq.), where he meets St. "Sepultus est Constantinopoli, ad quam urbem vigesimo Constantii anno, ossa ejus cum reliquiis Andreæ Apostoli translata sunt [de Achaia? Luke its always represented by the calf or ox, the sacrificial animal, because his Gospel begins with the account of Zachary, the priest, the father of John the Baptist. This writer states that the Empress Eudoxia found a picture of the Mother of God at Jerusalem, which she sent to Constantinople (see "Acta SS.", 18 Oct.). Luke was an artist, at least to the extent that his graphic descriptions of the Annunciation, Visitation, Nativity, Shepherds. Paul's fourteen Epistles: and Acts exceeds in length the Seven Catholic Epistles and the Apocalypse. The writer of the "we" sections claims to be a companion of St. The "we" begins at Acts , and continues to (the action is at Philippi). Plummer suggests that he may have studied medicine at the famous school of Tarsus, the rival of Alexandria and Athens, and possibly met St. From his intimate knowledge of the eastern Mediterranean, it has been conjectured that he had lengthened experience as a doctor on board ship. Maria Maggiore, Rome, is ascribed to him, and can be traced to A. 847 It is probably a copy of that mentioned by Theodore Lector, in the sixth century. The internal evidence may be briefly summarized as follows: The arguments are given at length by Plummer, "St. There is nothing more certain in Biblical criticism than this proposition.A few are found in Aristotle, but he was a doctor's son. has now been converted by Harnack's argument, founded in part, as he himself confesses, on the researches of English scholars, especially Dr. The words with which Hippocrates begins his treatise "On Ancient Medicine" should be noted in this connection: (Plummer, 4).The words and phrases cited are either peculiar to the Third Gospel and Acts, or are more frequent than in other New Testament writings. When all these considerations are fully taken into account, they prove that the companion of St. Writing to the Colossians (iv, 11), he says: "Luke, the most dear physician, saluteth you." He was, therefore, with St. Several writers have given examples of parallelism between the Gospel and the Pauline Epistles.

When doubtful cases and expressions common to the Septuagint, are set aside, a large number remain that seem quite unassailable. 13) says: "It is as good as certain from the subject-matter, and more especially from the style, of this great work that the author was a physician by profession. And, indeed, this conclusion holds good not only for the 'we' sections, but for the whole book." Harnack gives the subject special treatment in an appendix of twenty-two pages. The latter observes (Einl., II, 427): "Hobart has proved for everyone who can appreciate proof that the author of the Lucan work was a man practised in the scientific language of Greek medicine--in short, a Greek physician" (quoted by Harnack, op. In this connection, Plummer, though he speaks more cautiously of Hobart's argument, is practically in agreement with these writers. From the manner in which he is spoken of, a long period of intercourse is implied. The same author gives long lists of words and expressions found in the Gospel and Acts and in St. But more than this, Eager in "The Expositor" (July and August, 1894), in his attempt to prove that St.We should naturally expect that the long intercourse between St. Luke would mutually influence their vocabulary, and their writings show that this was really the case. Westcott shows that there is no trace in Justin of the use of any written document on the life of Christ except our Gospels. that His parents went thither [to Bethlehem] in consequence of an enrolment under Cyrinius — that as they could not find a lodging in the village they lodged in a cave close by it, where Christ was born, and laid by Mary in a manger", etc. There is a constant intermixture in Justin's quotations of the narratives of St. He states, however, that the memoirs which were called Gospels were read in the churches on Sunday along with the writings of the Prophets, in other words, they were placed on an equal rank with the Old Testament."He [Justin] tells us that Christ was descended from Abraham through Jacob, Judah, Phares, Jesse, David — that the Angel Gabriel was sent to announce His birth to the Virgin Mary — that it was in fulfillment of the prophecy of Isaiah . In the "Dialogue", cv, we have a passage peculiar to St. "Jesus as He gave up His Spirit upon the Cross said, Father, into thy hands I commend my Spirit? We are told the locality of only one deacon, "Nicolas, a proselyte of Antioch", 6:5; and it has been pointed out by Plummer that, out of eight writers who describe the Russian campaign of 1812, only two, who were Scottish, mention that the Russian general, Barclay de Tolly, was of Scottish extraction. Jerome) or after he became a Christian, through his close intercourse with the Apostles and disciples. The writer of Acts took a special interest in Antioch and was well acquainted with it (Acts -27; 13:1; -21, , , 23, 30, 35; ). Hence he cannot be identified with Lucius the prophet of Acts 13:1, nor with Lucius of Romans , who was of St. From this and the prologue of the Gospel it follows that Epiphanius errs when he calls him one of the Seventy Disciples; nor was he the companion of Cleophas in the journey to Emmaus after the Resurrection (as stated by Theophylact and the Greek Menologium). Luke had a great knowledge of the Septuagint and of things Jewish, which he acquired either as a Jewish proselyte (St.

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Of course, in making such a statement one still exposes oneself to the scorn of the critics, and yet the arguments which are alleged in its support are simply convincing. He says that when Hobart's list has been well sifted a considerable number of words remains. Any two or three instances of coincidence with medical writers may be explained as mere coincidences; but the large number of coincidences renders their explanation unsatisfactory for all of them, especially where the word is either rare in the LXX, or not found there at all" (64). 1909, 385 sqq.), Mayor says of Harnack's two above-cited works: "He has in opposition to the Tübingen school of critics, successfully vindicated for St. "This position", says Plummer, "is so generally admitted by critics of all schools that not much time need be spent in discussing it." Harnack may be said to be the latest prominent convert to this view, to which he gives elaborate support in the two books above mentioned. Luke was the author of Hebrews, has drawn attention to the remarkable fact that the Lucan influence on the language of St.

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